Biology: The Science of Life
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One of the best clinical feats of our technology is the astonishing growth made in figuring out the intricate equipment of lifestyles. We reside in the most efficient segment up to now on this quest, as researchers delve ever deeper into the workings of residing programs, turning their discoveries into new clinical therapies, stepped forward strategies of rising meals, and leading edge new merchandise.
"The 21st century would be the century of organic science, simply because the 20th century was once the century of bodily science," predicts Professor Stephen Nowicki, an award-winning trainer at Duke University who has specifically tailored his acclaimed introductory biology path for The Teaching Company to deliver you up to the moment on one of the crucial essential fields of information of our time.
This in depth, 72-lecture path will provide you with the background and steerage to discover intensive the basic ideas of the way residing issues work-principles similar to evolution by means of herbal variety, the mobile construction of organisms, the DNA principle of inheritance, and different key concepts to help you respect the marvelous range and complexity of lifestyles.
Explore Living Systems at All Levels
Make no mistake: This is a difficult path. But the rewards are super. You will discover residing programs in any respect ranges, from organic molecules to international ecosystems. Along the best way, you’re going to acquire perception into one of the crucial maximum urgent questions going through society:
What does it imply to mention that the human genome has been sequenced, and why will have to we series the genomes of alternative species?
How is an organism genetically changed or cloned, and what are the benefits-or possible costs-of doing so?
What are stem cells, and the way may they give a contribution to well being and welfare?
Why is HIV/AIDS so tough to regard?
What will occur if huge tracts of tropical rainforest are minimize down, and why does it subject that the temperature of the Earth is emerging?
In addition, you’re going to uncover the mechanisms at the back of such intriguing phenomena as why kids resemble their oldsters, what reasons crops to bend towards gentle, how recollections are saved, why some birds have very lengthy tails, and the way lifestyles itself started on Earth.
Above all, you’re going to discover ways to take into consideration biology, in order that on your day by day lifestyles you’re going to perceive the importance and complexities of reports tales, clinical problems, and public debates, to not point out what’s going on on your personal lawn and in nature throughout you.
The Unifying Themes of Biology
Professor Nowicki items the topic in a conceptual layout, emphasizing the significance of vast ideas. Facts and main points are presented in abundance, however within the context of creating a framework that listeners can take in.
The path is arranged round 3 unifying topics:
Starting with "Information and Evolution" (Lectures 1-24), you examine how details about the construction and group of residing issues is located within the DNA molecule, how this knowledge is transmitted and changed, and the consequences of those processes for figuring out lifestyles. One essential conclusion of this dialogue is that species inevitably exchange through the years; this is, that lifestyles evolves.
In "Development and Homeostasis" (Lectures 25-48), you imagine two similar problems for figuring out the workings of complicated organisms: how unmarried cells (fertilized eggs) proliferate and develop into into complicated, multicellular organisms, and the way portions of complicated organisms stay coordinated and handle their integrity within the face of various demanding situations.
In "Energy and Resources" (Lectures 49-72), you find out how residing programs download the power and different fabrics had to handle their extremely ordered state and the consequences of those processes for figuring out the group of biology in any respect ranges of scale. Ultimately this investigation leads into the self-discipline of ecology and to issues of power and useful resource boundaries for all of the planet.
The Great Experiments of Biology
One of the unique options of this path is that you just be informed a lot of the fabric throughout the nice experiments that exposed new and sudden sides of the residing global to science, together with:
Gregor Mendel came upon the basic ideas of inheritance thru his paintings on trait transmission in lawn peas within the mid-1800s
Thomas Hunt Morgan offered the fruit fly as a style gadget for contemporary genetics within the early 20th century. Morgan’s paintings and that of his many scholars demonstrated that genes happen on chromosomes.
Konrad Lorenz’s mid-20th-century paintings on releasers and glued motion patterns within the conduct of greylag ducks and different animals helped identify the fashionable learn about of animal conduct.
Arthur Kornberg’s discovery of DNA polymerase in 1958 helped spark these days’s revolution in biotechnology and genetic engineering.
In your systematic learn about of biology underneath Professor Nowicki’s steerage, you’re going to stumble upon a wealth of fascinating knowledge and observations, similar to:
Some cells in a creating organism are preprogrammed to die, a procedure this is essential, as an example, in developing the areas between our arms and feet.
The accumulation of oxygen in Earth’s setting following the evolution of photosynthetic micro organism was once a crisis of worldwide proportions for many of the organisms that lived earlier than oxygen seemed in the world.
The talent of cells to acknowledge self from non-self is fashionable in animals, even amongst creatures so simple as sponges. If you’re taking two sponges of the similar species and dissociate their cells, then combine the ones cells, the cells will reassociate with the person they got here from.
Some species of moths and butterflies become other taking a look caterpillars or adults relying at the time of yr that they occur to be born. It is the to be had meals supply that turns the caterpillar into one shape or every other.
The range of lifestyles is certainly remarkable-and so will probably be your enjoy with this path. You would possibly not perceive the whole thing the primary and even the second one time you listen it, however "the purpose is not to keep in mind the main points," says Professor Nowicki. "The level is to know how the main points are processed, how they are analyzed, how biologists get a hold of those concepts, and tips on how to take into consideration the brand new knowledge it’s possible you’ll stumble upon at some point.
"My purpose in educating is to have anyone in a position to open up a newspaper and say, ‘I perceive why that is the most important discovery in biology.’"
The Scope of "Life"
More at the Origin of Life
The Organism and the Cell
Proteins-How Things Get Done within the Cell
Which Molecule Holds the Code?
The Double Helix
The Nuts and Bolts of Replicating DNA
The Central Dogma
The Genetic Code
From DNA to RNA
From RNA to Protein
When Mistakes Happen
Dividing DNA Between Dividing Cells
Mendel and His Pea Plants
How Sex Leads to Variation
Genes and Chromosomes
Charles Darwin and "The Origin of Species"
Natural Selection in Action
Reconciling Darwin and Mendel
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change
What Are Species and How Do New Ones Arise?
More at the Origin of New Species
The History of Life, Revisited
From Cells to Organisms
Control of Gene Expression I
Control of Gene Expression II
Getting Proteins to the Right Place
Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
How Cells Talk-Signals and Receptors
How Cells Talk-Ways That Cells Respond
From One Cell to Many in an Organism
Patterns of Early Development
Determination and Differentiation
Induction and Pattern Formation
Genes and Development
Hormones in Animals
What is Special about Neurons?
Action Potentials and Synapses
Synaptic Integration and Memory
How Muscles Work
The Innate Immune System
The Acquired Immune System
Form and Function in Plants I
Form and Function in Plants II
Behavior as an Adaptive Trait
Energy and Resources in Living Systems
How Energy is Harnessed by means of Cells
Enzymes-Making Chemistry Work in Cells
Cellular Currencies of Energy
Making ATP-Cellular Respiration
Making ATP-The Chemiosmotic Theory
Capturing Energy from Sunlight
The Reactions of Photosynthesis
Resources and Life Histories
The Structure of Populations
What Limits Population Growth?
Costs and Benefits of Behavior
Altruism and Mate Selection
Ecological Interactions Among Species
Predators and Competitors
Competition and the Ecological Niche
Energy in Ecosystems
Nutrients in Ecosystems
How Predictable Are Ecological Communities?
Human Population Growth
The Human Asteroid?