Biology: The Science of Life
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One of the best medical feats of our generation is the astonishing development made in working out the intricate equipment of existence. We live in the most efficient segment up to now on this quest, as researchers delve ever deeper into the workings of dwelling methods, turning their discoveries into new clinical remedies, progressed strategies of rising meals, and leading edge new merchandise.
"The 21st century would be the century of organic science, simply because the 20th century used to be the century of bodily science," predicts Professor Stephen Nowicki, an award-winning trainer at Duke University who has specifically tailored his acclaimed introductory biology direction for The Teaching Company to convey you up to the moment on some of the necessary fields of information of our time.
This in depth, 72-lecture direction will provide you with the background and steering to discover intensive the basic rules of ways dwelling issues work-principles comparable to evolution by means of herbal variety, the mobile construction of organisms, the DNA principle of inheritance, and different key concepts that can assist you respect the marvelous range and complexity of existence.
Explore Living Systems at All Levels
Make no mistake: This is a difficult direction. But the rewards are super. You will discover dwelling methods in any respect ranges, from organic molecules to world ecosystems. Along the best way, you’ll acquire perception into one of the maximum urgent questions going through society:
What does it imply to mention that the human genome has been sequenced, and why must we collection the genomes of alternative species?
How is an organism genetically changed or cloned, and what are the benefits-or attainable costs-of doing so?
What are stem cells, and the way may they give a contribution to well being and welfare?
Why is HIV/AIDS so tricky to regard?
What will occur if huge tracts of tropical rainforest are lower down, and why does it subject that the temperature of the Earth is emerging?
In addition, you’ll uncover the mechanisms at the back of such intriguing phenomena as why kids resemble their oldsters, what reasons crops to bend towards mild, how reminiscences are saved, why some birds have very lengthy tails, and the way existence itself started on Earth.
Above all, you’ll learn to consider biology, in order that to your daily existence you’ll perceive the importance and complexities of stories tales, clinical problems, and public debates, to not point out what’s going on to your personal lawn and in nature throughout you.
The Unifying Themes of Biology
Professor Nowicki gifts the topic in a conceptual layout, emphasizing the significance of extensive rules. Facts and main points are presented in abundance, however within the context of growing a framework that listeners can take in.
The direction is arranged round 3 unifying topics:
Starting with "Information and Evolution" (Lectures 1-24), you examine how details about the construction and group of dwelling issues is located within the DNA molecule, how this data is transmitted and changed, and the consequences of those processes for working out existence. One necessary conclusion of this dialogue is that species inevitably trade through the years; this is, that existence evolves.
In "Development and Homeostasis" (Lectures 25-48), you imagine two similar problems for working out the workings of advanced organisms: how unmarried cells (fertilized eggs) proliferate and change into into advanced, multicellular organisms, and the way portions of advanced organisms stay coordinated and take care of their integrity within the face of various demanding situations.
In "Energy and Resources" (Lectures 49-72), you find out how dwelling methods download the power and different fabrics had to take care of their extremely ordered state and the consequences of those processes for working out the group of biology in any respect ranges of scale. Ultimately this investigation leads into the self-discipline of ecology and to issues of power and useful resource barriers for all the planet.
The Great Experiments of Biology
One of the unique options of this direction is that you just be told a lot of the fabric during the nice experiments that exposed new and sudden facets of the dwelling international to science, together with:
Gregor Mendel found out the basic rules of inheritance via his paintings on trait transmission in lawn peas within the mid-1800s
Thomas Hunt Morgan offered the fruit fly as a style gadget for contemporary genetics within the early 20th century. Morgan’s paintings and that of his many scholars demonstrated that genes happen on chromosomes.
Konrad Lorenz’s mid-20th-century paintings on releasers and glued motion patterns within the habits of greylag ducks and different animals helped identify the trendy learn about of animal habits.
Arthur Kornberg’s discovery of DNA polymerase in 1958 helped spark as of late’s revolution in biotechnology and genetic engineering.
In your systematic learn about of biology below Professor Nowicki’s steering, you’ll come across a wealth of attention-grabbing knowledge and observations, comparable to:
Some cells in a growing organism are preprogrammed to die, a procedure this is necessary, for instance, in developing the areas between our hands and ft.
The accumulation of oxygen in Earth’s environment following the evolution of photosynthetic micro organism used to be a crisis of worldwide proportions for many of the organisms that lived prior to oxygen seemed on this planet.
The talent of cells to acknowledge self from non-self is standard in animals, even amongst creatures so simple as sponges. If you are taking two sponges of the similar species and dissociate their cells, then combine the ones cells, the cells will reassociate with the person they got here from.
Some species of moths and butterflies change into other taking a look caterpillars or adults relying at the time of 12 months that they occur to be born. It is the to be had meals supply that turns the caterpillar into one shape or every other.
The range of existence is certainly remarkable-and so can be your revel in with this direction. You would possibly not perceive the entirety the primary and even the second one time you listen it, however "the purpose is not to keep in mind the main points," says Professor Nowicki. "The level is to know how the main points are processed, how they are analyzed, how biologists get a hold of those concepts, and the way to consider the brand new knowledge you may come across one day.
"My purpose in educating is to have someone ready to open up a newspaper and say, ‘I perceive why that is a very powerful discovery in biology.’"
The Scope of "Life"
More at the Origin of Life
The Organism and the Cell
Proteins-How Things Get Done within the Cell
Which Molecule Holds the Code?
The Double Helix
The Nuts and Bolts of Replicating DNA
The Central Dogma
The Genetic Code
From DNA to RNA
From RNA to Protein
When Mistakes Happen
Dividing DNA Between Dividing Cells
Mendel and His Pea Plants
How Sex Leads to Variation
Genes and Chromosomes
Charles Darwin and "The Origin of Species"
Natural Selection in Action
Reconciling Darwin and Mendel
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change
What Are Species and How Do New Ones Arise?
More at the Origin of New Species
The History of Life, Revisited
From Cells to Organisms
Control of Gene Expression I
Control of Gene Expression II
Getting Proteins to the Right Place
Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
How Cells Talk-Signals and Receptors
How Cells Talk-Ways That Cells Respond
From One Cell to Many in an Organism
Patterns of Early Development
Determination and Differentiation
Induction and Pattern Formation
Genes and Development
Hormones in Animals
What is Special about Neurons?
Action Potentials and Synapses
Synaptic Integration and Memory
How Muscles Work
The Innate Immune System
The Acquired Immune System
Form and Function in Plants I
Form and Function in Plants II
Behavior as an Adaptive Trait
Energy and Resources in Living Systems
How Energy is Harnessed by means of Cells
Enzymes-Making Chemistry Work in Cells
Cellular Currencies of Energy
Making ATP-Cellular Respiration
Making ATP-The Chemiosmotic Theory
Capturing Energy from Sunlight
The Reactions of Photosynthesis
Resources and Life Histories
The Structure of Populations
What Limits Population Growth?
Costs and Benefits of Behavior
Altruism and Mate Selection
Ecological Interactions Among Species
Predators and Competitors
Competition and the Ecological Niche
Energy in Ecosystems
Nutrients in Ecosystems
How Predictable Are Ecological Communities?
Human Population Growth
The Human Asteroid?