Philosophy and Cognitive Science: Categories, Consciousness, and Reasoning: Proceeding of the Second International Colloquium on Cognitive Science (Philosophical Studies Series)

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Plato’s Socrates, Philosophy and Education by James M. Magrini

Plato’s Socrates, Philosophy and Education by James M. Magrini
Requirements: .PDF reader, 1.7 MB
Overview: This book develops for the readers Plato’s Socrates’ non-formalized “philosophical practice” of learning-through-questioning in the company of others. In doing so, the writer confronts Plato’s Socrates, in the words of John Dewey, as the “dramatic, restless, cooperatively inquiring philosopher" of the dialogues, whose view of education and learning is unique: (1) It is focused on actively pursuing a form of philosophical understanding irreducible to truth of a propositional nature, which defies “transfer” from practitioner to pupil; (2) It embraces the perennial “on-the-wayness” of education and learning in that to interrogate the virtues, or the “good life,” through the practice of the dialectic, is to continually renew the quest for a deeper understanding of things by returning to, reevaluating and modifying the questions originally posed regarding the “good life.” Indeed Socratic philosophy is a life of questioning those aspects of existence that are most question-worthy; and (3) It accepts that learning is a process guided and structured by dialectic inquiry, and is already immanent within and possible only because of the unfolding of the process itself, i.e., learning is not a goal that somehow stands outside the dialectic as its end product, which indicates erroneously that the method or practice is disposable. For learning occurs only through continued, sustained communal dialogue.
Genre: Non-Fiction > Faith, Beliefs & Philosophy

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The Philosophy of the Mòzi (Mozi) by Chris Fraser

The Philosophy of the Mòzi: The First Consequentialists by Chris Fraser
Requirements: .ePUB reader, 6.4MB
Overview: Mohism was an ancient Chinese philosophical movement founded in the fifth century BCE by the charismatic artisan Mòzi, or “Master Mo.” Its practitioners advanced a consequentialist ethics, along with fascinating political, logical, and epistemological theories, that set the terms of philosophical argumentation and reflection in China for generations to come. Mohism faded away in the imperial era, leaving the impression that it was not as vital as other Chinese philosophical traditions, yet a complete understanding of Confucianism or Daoism is impossible without appreciating the seminal contribution of Mohist thought. The Philosophy of the Mòzi is an extensive study of Mohism, situating the movement’s rise and decline within Chinese history. The book also emphasizes Mohism’s relevance to modern systems of thought. Mohism anticipated Western utilitarianism by more than two thousand years. Its political theory is the earliest to outline a just war doctrine and locate the origins of government in a state of nature. Its epistemology, logic, and psychology provide compelling alternatives to contemporary Western mentalism. More than a straightforward account of Mohist principles and practice, this volume immerses readers in the Mohist mindset and clarifies its underpinning of Chinese philosophical discourse.
Genre: Non-Fiction > Faith, Beliefs & Philosophy

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Rationality and Feminist Philosophy by Deborah K. Heikes

Rationality and Feminist Philosophy by Deborah K. Heikes
Requirements: .ePUB reader, 300.2 Kb
Overview: Rationality and Feminist Philosophy argues that the Enlightenment conception of rationality that feminists are fond of attacking is no longer a live concept. Deborah K. Heikes shows how contemporary theories of rationality are consonant with many feminist concerns and proposes that feminists need a substantive theory of rationality, which she argues should be a virtue theory of rationality.

Within both feminist and non-feminist philosophical circles, our understanding of rationality depends upon the concept’s history. Heikes traces the development of theories of rationality from Descartes through to the present day, examining the work of representative philosophers of the Enlightenment and twentieth and twenty-first centuries. She discusses feminist concerns with rationality as understood by each philosopher discussed and also focuses on the deeper problems that lie outside specifically feminist issues. She goes on to consider how each conception of rationality serves to ground the broadly conceived feminist philosophical goals of asserting the reality and injustice of oppression. She ultimately concludes that a virtue rationality may serve feminist needs well, without the accompanying baggage of Enlightenment rationality.
Genre: Non-Fiction > Faith, Beliefs & Philosophy > Feminist Theory

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Philosophy of Mathematics by Oystein Linnebo

Philosophy of Mathematics by Oystein Linnebo
Requirements: .ePUB reader, 2.8 MB
Overview: A sophisticated, original introduction to the philosophy of mathematics from one of its leading contemporary scholars

Mathematics is one of humanity’s most successful yet puzzling endeavors. It is a model of precision and objectivity, but appears distinct from the empirical sciences because it seems to deliver nonexperiential knowledge of a nonphysical reality of numbers, sets, and functions. How can these two aspects of mathematics be reconciled? This concise book provides a systematic yet accessible introduction to the field that is trying to answer that question: the philosophy of mathematics.

Written by Øystein Linnebo, one of the world’s leading scholars on the subject, the book introduces all of the classical approaches to the field, including logicism, formalism, intuitionism, empiricism, and structuralism. It also contains accessible introductions to some more specialized issues, such as mathematical intuition, potential infinity, the iterative conception of sets, and the search for new mathematical axioms. The groundbreaking work of German mathematician and philosopher Gottlob Frege, one of the founders of analytic philosophy, figures prominently throughout the book. Other important thinkers whose work is introduced and discussed include Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, David Hilbert, Kurt Gödel, W. V. Quine, Paul Benacerraf, and Hartry H. Field.
Genre: Non-Fiction > Faith, Beliefs & Philosophy

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Indian Philosophy of Induction by Kisor Kumar Chakrabarti

Classical Indian Philosophy of Induction: The Nyaya Viewpoint by Kisor Kumar Chakrabarti
Requirements: .ePUB reader, 363 KB
Overview: Induction is a basic method of scientific and philosophical inquiry. The work seeks to show against the skeptical tide that the method is secure and reliable. The problem of induction has been a hotly debated issue in modern and contemporary philosophy since David Hume. However, long before the modern era Indian philosophers have addressed this problem for about two thousand years. This work examines some major Indian viewpoints including those of Jayarasi (7th century), Dharmakirti (7th century), Prabhakara (8th century), Udayana (11th century) and Prabhacandra (14th century). It also discusses some influential contemporary positions including those of Russell, Strawson, Popper, Reichenbach, Carnap, Goodman and Quine.
Genre: Non-Fiction > Faith, Beliefs & Philosophy

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Philosophy and Vulnerability by Matthew R. McLennan

Philosophy and Vulnerability: Catherine Breillat, Joan Didion, and Audre Lorde by Matthew R. McLennan
Requirements: .PDF reader, 600 KB
Overview: Issues surrounding precarity, debility and vulnerability are now of central concern to philosophers as we try and navigate an increasingly uncertain world. Matthew R. McLennan delves into these subjects enthusiastically and sensitively, presenting a vision of the discipline of philosophy which is grounded in real, lived experience.

Developing an invigorating, if at times painful, sense of the finitude and fragility of human life, Philosophy and Vulnerability provocatively marshals three disciplinary “nonphilosophers” to make its argument: French filmmaker and novelist Catherine Breillat, journalist and masterful cultural commentator Joan Didion and feminist poet and civil rights activist Audre Lorde. Through this encounter, this book suggests ways in which rigorous attention to difference and diversity must nourish a militant philosophical universalism in the future.
Genre: Non-Fiction > Faith, Beliefs & Philosophy

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