Empty Representations: Reference and Non-Existence by Manuel Garcia-Carpintero, Genoveva Marti
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Overview: It is the linguistic job of singular terms to pick out the objects that we think or talk about. But what about singular terms that seem to fail to designate anything, because the objects they refer to don’t exist? We can employ these terms in meaningful thought and talk, which suggests that they are succeeding in fulfilling their representational task. A team of leading experts presents new essays on the much-debated problem of empty reference and thought.
In the 1960s and 1970s Keith Donnellan, David Kaplan, Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam initiated a revolution in the then standard conception of reference-a concept at the core of philosophical inquiry. The repercussions of the revolution, particularly felt in metaphysics and epistemology, were soon refined by other influential writers such as Tyler Burge, Gareth Evans, and John Perry. They argued that some linguistic and mental representations have contents individuated by what they are about-by ordinary referents of expressions such as proper names, indexicals, definite descriptions and common nouns, i.e. by planets, people or natural kinds. The view was at odds with a central philosophical presumption at that time: that cognitive and linguistic access to objective reality is indirect and accidental, mediated by general descriptive characterizations, the only constitutive semantic feature of the expressions; hence its ontological and epistemological repercussions. A turning-point in the debate about how linguistic and mental representation reach external contents concerned the nature of empty mental and linguistic representations, framed by means of the very same expressions crucially invoked in the Donnellan-Kaplan-Kripke-Putnam arguments. The papers in this volume address different aspects of reference and thought about the (apparently) non-existent.
Genre: Non-Fiction > Educational
Gender, Power, and Representations of Cree Law
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Qualitative Representations: How People Reason and Learn About the Continuous World through Kenneth D. Forbus
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Overview: An argument that qualitative representations-symbolic representations that carve steady phenomena into significant units-are central to human cognition.
In this e book, Kenneth Forbus proposes that qualitative representations cling the important thing to one of the crucial private mysteries of cognitive science: how we explanation why and be informed concerning the steady phenomena surrounding us. Forbus argues that qualitative representations-symbolic representations that carve steady phenomena into significant units-are central to human cognition. Qualitative representations supply a foundation for common sense reasoning, as a result of they allow sensible reasoning with little or no knowledge; this makes qualitative representations an invaluable element of herbal language semantics. Qualitative representations additionally supply a basis for professional reasoning in science and engineering through making specific the large classes of items that would possibly occur and enabling causal fashions that assist information the applying of extra quantitative wisdom as wanted. Qualitative representations are necessary for developing extra human-like synthetic intelligence techniques with functions for spatial reasoning, imaginative and prescient, query answering, and working out herbal language.
Forbus discusses, amongst different subjects, fundamental concepts of data illustration and reasoning; qualitative procedure concept; qualitative simulation and reasoning about alternate; compositional modeling; qualitative spatial reasoning; and finding out and conceptual alternate. His argument is notable each for presenting an way to qualitative reasoning during which analogical reasoning and finding out play the most important roles and for marshaling all kinds of proof, together with the efficiency of AI techniques. Cognitive scientists will in finding Forbus’s account of qualitative representations illuminating; AI scientists will price Forbus’s new way to qualitative representations and the review he provides.
Genre: Non-Fiction > General
Representations of Revolution (1789-1820) by way of Ronald Paulson
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Overview: The central stress in Representations of Revolution is that whilst it specializes in “how one can constitute the exceptional,” its consciousness of the historical past of the elegant and ugly means that “we will be able to understand as exceptional most effective that for which we’ve got already been ready” (27). Different arrangements equivalent other representations, representations (it will appear) thus “all the time already” there within the psycho-cultural coding of the artist. The matter is not “revolutions of illustration,” the Revolution being (in Matthew Arnold’s phrases), “a super motion of feeling, no longer . . . a super motion of thoughts.” As it seems, then, we right here see Wordsworth’s Prelude, Burke’s Reflections, and Blake’s prophetic books “as in regards to the revel in of coming to phrases with the Revolution, no longer merely as a illustration of the phenomenon itself” (251). And “the phenomenon itself”? the ellipsis within the citation summing up Blake’s use of “the tiger this is half-lamb” (para. 3, above) says that Blake thus “implicitly categorized the phenomenon, or a minimum of the complicated phenomenon that seemed to exterior observers such because the artist, as ugly.” With such qualification, are we able to discuss of “the phenomenon itself”? and if no longer, in all probability the actually modern revel in is that of coming to phrases with one’s incapacity to come back to phrases, to re-present the phenomenon itself.
Genre: Non-Fiction > General